Table of Contents

Open Access

ISSN 2638-1311

OBM Geriatrics , Volume 3 , Issue 2 (2019)

Pages: 275

Published: December 2019

(This book is a printed edition that was published in OBM Geriatrics)

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Cover story: This paper applies the concept of “linked lives” to sibling caregivers of individuals with intellectual and developmental disabilities, examining caregiving processes and outcomes among siblings. Caregiver empowerment and mood are related to the support that caregivers themselves experience, their own appraisals of caregiving, and how they make meaning of them.  View this paper.

Volume 3,Issue 2

Open Access Research Article

Comparisons of Target Localization Abilities during Physical and Virtual Rotating Scenes by Cognitively-Intact and Cognitively Impaired Older Adults

Received: 20 August 2018;  Published: 27 June 2019;  doi: 10.21926/obm.geriatr.1902059


Background: Previous studies have reported that coordinate information (i.e. distance between any two objects in a specific direction) is encoded differently from Virtual Reality (VR) and physical scenes. However, the accuracy of encoding categorical information (i.e. relative positions of objects) from VR scenes has not been adequately investigated. In this study, we used a novel rotating visual scene to study the effects of aging, prior experience with VR, and dementia on the accuracy of encod [...]

Open Access Research Article

Wrinkles and Smiles — What is Good Aging? A Technology Assessment Perspective

Received: 31 January 2019;  Published: 27 June 2019;  doi: 10.21926/obm.geriatr.1902058


(1) Background: In the light of recent changes in the discourse on positive ageing approaches, we take a closer look at the way “quality ageing” is understood, expressed and dealt with in technology assessment (TA) that investigates desirable frameworks and futures for an ageing society from a citizen, stakeholder and expert perspective. (2) Methods: A bottom up qualitative text analysis identifies quality ageing concepts in final reports of a sample of recent national and international (predomi [...]

Open Access Review

Treating Dementia Early: Limiting Cellular Damage in Brain Tissue

Received: 27 December 2018;  Published: 17 June 2019;  doi: 10.21926/obm.geriatr.1902057


Much evidence has been published which indicates that microvascular endothelial dysfunction, due to cerebrovascular risk factors (e.g., atherosclerosis, hypertension, obesity, diabetes, smoking, aging), precedes cognitive decline in Alzheimer's disease and contributes to its pathogenesis. By incorporating appropriate drug(s) into biomimetic (lipid cubic phase) nanocarriers, one obtains a multitasking combination therapeutic which targets certain cell-surface scavenger receptors, and crosses the [...]

Open Access Communication

Making Sense of Senselessness: Contemporary Literary Commentaries on Dementia

Received: 20 December 2018;  Published: 17 June 2019;  doi: 10.21926/obm.geriatr.1902056


Alzheimer’s Disease is increasingly seen as the major health in developed countries supplanting cancer and heart disease. The terror with which we respond to dementia, is grounded in a view of dementia as a monstrous descent, ambushing our healthy ageing through an incursion of pathology. The pervasiveness of this view can mean that other perspectives and even the views of those most touched by the challenges of dementia can remain unheard. Part of the cultural conversation around dementia is [...]

Open Access Review

Aging, Informed Consent and Autonomy: Ethical Issues and Challenges Surrounding Research and Long-Term Care

Received: 29 January 2019;  Published: 24 May 2019;  doi: 10.21926/obm.geriatr.1902055


The history surrounding the notion of ‘informed consent’ is provided in the interest of setting a framework for the emergence of an ethics of aged care. Informed consent negligence is seen as a breach of duty involving potential litigation through the legal concept of ‘failure to warn’. Research involving older people creates a range of ethical issues that warrants the use of best practice principles that respect the integrity, dignity and safety of older participants. The use of restraints as p [...]

Open Access Original Research

Empirical Examination of Caregiving Processes and Outcomes among Adult Siblings of Individuals with Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities

Received: 25 February 2019;  Published: 20 May 2019;  doi: 10.21926/obm.geriatr.1902054


Most individuals with disabilities in the US live in family settings; in some families, siblings are default long-term support providers. Although researchers have explored the roles of parent caregivers, the roles of sibling caregivers need attention. In this study, we examined caregiving processes and outcomes among 322 adult sibling support providers (SSPs) with a range of support roles. Adapting a conceptual model of caregiving processes, we used structural equation modeling to assess relati [...]

Open Access Review

Admiral Nurse Case Management: A Model of Caregiver Support for Families Affected by Dementia

Received: 26 February 2019;  Published: 10 May 2019;  doi: 10.21926/obm.geriatr.1902053


People with dementia do not exist in isolation and whilst there has been a strong thrust to identify the needs of people with dementia against a background of person centred care, they live within relational contexts with family members. Case management is a model of care that can support the care needs of both the person with dementia and the family carers through coordinating care and services that are both integrated across health and social care but also carer that is sensitive to the needs [...]

Open Access Research Article

The Relationship between Caregiver Stress and Behavioural Changes in Dementia

Received: 01 March 2019;  Published: 09 May 2019;  doi: 10.21926/obm.geriatr.1902052


Background: Clinical studies have shown that caregivers of dementia patients often experience a great deal of stress related to caregiving. This paper examines caregiver stress within the context of behaviour change in dementia using the Kingston Caregiver Stress Scale (KCSS) and the Kingston Standardized Behaviour Scale (Community Form) (KSBA(comm)). Methods: Eighty patients with moderate dementia and their caregivers participated. Each patient was cognitively assessed [...]

Open Access Concept Paper

Biological Age versus Chronological Age in the Prevention of Age Associated Diseases

Received: 31 January 2019;  Published: 05 May 2019;  doi: 10.21926/obm.geriatr.1902051


Aging is associated with an increasing incidence of major diseases among which cancer, cardiovascular, neurodegenerative, metabolic and autoimmune diseases. Primary prevention and early diagnosis of these diseases have a dramatic impact on incidence, outcome and quality of life and are commonly applied as age-dependent indications based on evidence of efficacy for specific groups of the aging population. They likely contribute to the observed increase in life expectancy through the reduction of [...]

Open Access Project Report

An Evaluation of a Community-Based Psychoeducation Program for Successful Ageing

Received: 29 October 2018;  Published: 26 April 2019;  doi: 10.21926/obm.geriatr.1902050


(1) Background: The increasing numbers and proportion of the ageing population make it essential to develop and evaluate programs to meet the needs of older adults to empower them to age actively, healthily and successfully. Consequently, positive ageing programs have been developed and the need to evaluate their efficacy is essential. This study used mixed methods to evaluate a longstanding positive ageing psychoeducation program “SAGE” conducted in Australia. (2) Methods: Two approaches were [...]

Open Access Original Research

Moderators of Treatment Outcomes from Family Caregiver Skills Training: Secondary Analysis of a Randomized Controlled Trial

Received: 22 February 2019;  Published: 18 April 2019;  doi: 10.21926/obm.geriatr.1902049


Background: Moderator analyses may be helpful for evaluating intervention effects. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether the effect of a caregiver skills training intervention – Helping Invested Families Improve Veterans' Experience Study (HI-FIVES) – on care recipient outcome and caregiver outcome is moderated by the veteran’s risk for hospitalization or level of functional impairment. Methods: Secondary data analysis of HI-FIVES. Outcomes included community days (cumulative days [...]

Open Access Case Report

Daily Observations of Preserved Cognition and Quality of Life after Multiple Therapies for Postmortem-Verified Severe Alzheimer’s

Received: 15 February 2019;  Published: 18 April 2019;  doi: 10.21926/obm.geriatr.1902048


Abstract Background: Cognitive abilities in Alzheimer’s Disease are usually examined by formal tests conducted in a laboratory or facility. Such tests are useful for determining the severity of the disease but do not indicate the types of cognition exhibited in the daily lives of patients. This study shows cognitive preservation in daily life by a woman given multiple therapeutic interventions. Since Alzheimer’s disease involves multiple dysfunctions, several studies found multiple therapeutic a [...]

Open Access Review

Aging High: Opioid Use Disorder in the Elderly Population

Received: 13 November 2018;  Published: 17 April 2019;  doi: 10.21926/obm.geriatr.1902047


As the 80 million “baby boomers” reach retirement, they bring their relaxed attitudes toward drug use to create a clinically significant population of geriatric drug abusers. Opioid use disorder (OUD) brings with it special considerations in the elderly population: age-related changes to drug disposition, brain changes in the elderly, polypharmacy, and the likelihood of comorbid conditions (such as cardiovascular or pulmonary diseases) and pain syndromes. Thirteen percent of patients in a New Yo [...]

Open Access Review

Engagement and Utilization of Advance Care Planning and Hospice in Different Older Asian American Populations

Received: 31 October 2018;  Published: 08 April 2019;  doi: 10.21926/obm.geriatr.1902046


This research review intended to examine the patterns of engagement in advance care planning (ACP) and utilization of end-of-life (EoL) care treatment services including, but not limited to hospice care, in distinct older Asian American ethnic groups. The research analysis suggested evidence that studies about different older subpopulations of Asian Americans remains scarce. This research systematically collected and analysed 28 small-scale studies on older Asian Americans’ attitudes and engagem [...]

Open Access Comment

hTERT Promoter Regulation by Differentiation Mechanisms vs Telomerase Activity in Somatic, Embryonic, and Cancerous Cells

Received: 02 February 2019;  Published: 04 April 2019;  doi: 10.21926/obm.geriatr.1902045


Telomere shortening in the somatic cells is one of the most well-documented factors of cellular ageing. Telomeres are composed of tandem hexanucleotide repeats that protect cells from unwanted recombination mechanisms, secure the ends of chromosomes and their stability, and are responsible for limited division capacity. Telomerase is an enzymatic ribonucleoprotein complex, present in embryonic cells, adult stem cells, and germinal progenitors, whose function is to extend the telomeres length by [...]

Open Access Research Article

Examining the Effectiveness of Two Types of Forgiveness Intervention to Enhance Well-Being in Adults from Young to Older Adulthood

Received: 30 October 2018;  Published: 03 April 2019;  doi: 10.21926/obm.geriatr.1902044


Background: The present study examined the efficacy of two self-guided interventions, which aimed at enhancing adults’ wellbeing through the cultivation of forgiveness skills. Methods: A total of 11 men and 31 women aged 34-80 years were involved (M = 56.57, S.D. = 13.44). The participants were asked to complete questionnaires measuring the sense of wellbeing, the trait of forgiveness, and avoidance, revenge, and benevolence motivations. Subsequently, they were randomly divided into two groups wh [...]