OBM Integrative and Complementary Medicine is an international peer-reviewed Open Access journal published quarterly online by LIDSEN Publishing Inc. It covers all evidence-based scientific studies on integrative, alternative and complementary approaches to improving health and wellness.
Topics contain but are not limited to:
It publishes a variety of article types: original research, review, communication, opinion, case report, study protocol, comment, conference report, technical note, book review, etc.
There is no restriction on paper length, provided that the text is concise and comprehensive. Authors should present their results in as much detail as possible, as reviewers are encouraged to emphasize scientific rigor and reproducibility.
Indexing: DOAJ-Directory of Open Access Journals.
Archiving: full-text archived in CLOCKSS.
Rapid publication: manuscripts are undertaken in 6.1 days from acceptance to publication (median values for papers published in this journal in the first half of 2020, 1-2 days of FREE language polishing time is also included in this period). A first decision provided to authors of manuscripts submitted to this journal are approximately 3.5 weeks (median values) after submission.
We welcome Prof. Bruno Lunenfeld from Bar-Ilan University, Israel, to join the Editorial Board of OBM Integrative and Complementary Medicine. Prof. Lunenfeld is Professor Emeritus of Endocrinology at Bar-Ilan University, and he is well known in the field of endocrinology around the world. Prof. Lunenfeld is being recognized as a Giant in the specialty for his work on developing the clinical use and standardization of human menopausal gonadotropin in the treatment of female and male infertility. We are grateful to Prof. Lunenfeld for his participation and support.
We welcome Professor Kun-Chan Lan from National Cheng Kung University, Taiwan, to join the Editorial Board of OBM Integrative and Complementary Medicine. From 1998 to 2004, Prof. Lan joined ISI's Computer Networks Division as a graduate research assistant. During this period, he maintained and contributed codes to the popular network simulation software ns-2. From 2004 to 2007, Prof. Lan joined the Network and Pervasive Computing Program at NICTA (National ICT Australia) in Sydney as a researcher and lead the effort of building one of the world's first outdoor wireless testbeds for traffic light communication in the context of STaR (Smart Transport and Roads) project (STaR in press). We are grateful to Prof. Lan for his participation and support.
We welcome Professor Umberto Solimene from University of Milan, Italy, to join the Editorial Board of OBM Integrative and Complementary Medicine. Professor Solimene is the director of World Health Organization Coll. Center for Traditional, Complementary and integrative Medicine. He also serves as president of Worldwide Federation of Hydrotherapy and Climatotherapy, Italy. He has extensive experience in integrative and complementary medicine. We are grateful to Prof. Solimene for his participation and support.
We welcome Prof. Robert B. Raffa to join the Editorial Board of OBM Integrative and Complementary Medicine. Prof. Raffa is the Adjunct Professor at the University of Arizona College of Pharmacy and Professor Emeritus at Temple University School of Pharmacy. He has published more than 300 papers in refereed journals, and co-authored or edited several books on pharmacology and thermodynamics. He is a past president of the Mid-Atlantic Pharmacology Society and is the recipient of research and teaching awards. He lectures and consults worldwide on pain pathways and analgesics. We are grateful to Prof. Raffa for his participation and support.
We welcome Professor W. Douglas Evans to join the Editorial Board of OBM Integrative and Complementary Medicine. Prof. Evans is Professor of Prevention and Community Health & Global in the Milken Institute School of Public Health at The George Washington University. He has over 25 years of experience in the design and evaluation of behavior change interventions and has published over 150 peer-reviewed articles, books, and chapters in the fields of health communication and social marketing. Dr. Evans has pioneered the theory and application of branding for social and behavioral change. In his research, he applies branding as a strategy to change social norms. He designs and evaluates interventions using digital technologies. We are grateful to Prof. Evans for his participation and support.
We welcome Dr. Sumiyo Umeda from Hokkaido University of Science, Japan, to join the Editorial Board of OBM Integrative and Complementary Medicine. Dr. Umeda is the Lecturer of Department of Drug Information Analysis, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Hokkaido University of Science. She teaches more than 150 hours a year, publishes many papers and book chapters, and helps organize and run professional meetings. We are grateful to Dr. Umeda for her participation and support.
We welcome Professor Ronald W. Pies from SUNY Upstate Medical University, USA, to join the Editorial Board of OBM Integrative and Complementary Medicine. Professor Pies also serves as Clinical Professor of Psychiatry at Tufts U. School of Medicine, USA. He wrote on a variety of cross-disciplinary topics, ranging from mental health to philosophy of mind to spirituality. He has published lots of articles in prestigious journals. Prof. Pies has extensive experience in psychology and ethics related research. We are grateful to Prof. Pies for his participation and support.
We welcome Dr. Albert S. Yeung from Massachusetts General Hospital, USA, to join the Editorial Board of OBM Integrative and Complementary Medicine. Dr, Yeung is the director of Primary Care Research at Depression Clinical and Research Program at Massachusetts General Hospital. He also serves as associate professor of Psychiatry at Harvard Medical School, USA. Dr. Yeung has authored or co-authored more than 120 original articles and book chapters, and a book on self-management of depression. He has extensive experience in treatment of depression. We are grateful to Dr. Yeung for his participation and support.
We welcome Dr. Seán O Nualláin, from Stanford University, USA, to join the Editorial Board of OBM Integrative and Complementary Medicine. Dr. Nualláin is the faculty member of Stanford University, USA with courses “Neuroscience and Experience” and “Biosemiotics”. He is also the CEO of Nous Research, Ireland, which is trading as Foundations of Mind in USA and internationally, the most downloaded and viewed “mind” group with greater than 1 million page views per week in the world, and greater than 1000 unique viewers a day, and greater than 1 hundred thousand downloads every year.He has extensive clinical experience in the chest anesthesiology and reanimation. Dr. Nualláin also has a wide range of interests. We are grateful to Dr. Nualláin for his participation and support.
We welcome Professor Nancy Nies Byl from University of California, USA, to join the Editorial Board of OBM Integrative and Complementary Medicine. Prof. Byl is currently an Emeritus Professor in the Department of Physical Therapy and Rehabilitation Science. She is particularly interested in the outcomes of learning based sensory, cognitive, motor and aerobic exercise programs for patients who are aging and those with dystonia, stroke, head injuries and neurodegenerative impairments. In addition, she has 85 peer reviewed publications and has also received numerous awards. We are grateful to Prof. Byl for her participation and support.
We welcome Dr. Rafat A. Siddiqui from Virginia State University, USA, to join the Editorial Board of OBM Integrative and Complementary Medicine. Dr. Siddiqui is the Associate Professor of Nutrition Science and Food Chemistry Laboratory, Virginia State University. His research interests are in the area of cancer, inflammation, and cardiovascular diseases. His recent work focuses on the health benefits of fish oil, grape pomace, green papaya, pomegranate, Plums, Ginger, and Turmeric extracts. His research emphasis is on the synergistic modulation of chronic diseases by combination of nutrients and drugs.
We welcome Dr. Solomon Ike Okosun from Georgia State University, USA, to join the Editorial Board of OBM Integrative and Complementary Medicine. Dr. Okosun is currently an Associate Professor for the School of Public Health at Georgia State University (GSU). He has over 25 years of experience in public health and also is a chronic disease epidemiologist who is an internationally recognized expert in the epidemiology of hypertension, type 2 diabetes, obesity and metabolic syndrome. His work on the role of abdominal obesity in explaining racial/ethnic variations for cardiovascular diseases has furthered understanding of lipid biology. We are grateful to Dr. Okosun for his participation and support.
We welcome Professor Paul J. Arciero from Department of Health and Human Physiological Sciences, Skidmore College, USA, to join the Editorial Board of OBM Integrative and Complementary Medicine. Prof. Arciero specializes in Protein pacing, nutrition and fitness interventions, exercise training, neurocognitive training, obesity and disease prevention, focusing on optimal health paradigms of healthy nutrition and exercise interventions. At present, his primary focus is evaluating the effectiveness of his protein pacing and prise protocol, nutrition and fitness lifestyle interventions on body composition, energy metabolism, markers of cardiovascular risk and cognitive function adults of all ages. We are grateful to Prof. Arciero for his participation and support.
We welcome Dr. SokCheon Pak from Charles Sturt University, Australia, to join the Editorial Board of OBM Integrative and Complementary Medicine. Dr. Pak is a Senior Lecturer and Program Leader of the Bachelor of Health Science (Complementary Medicine) at the School of Biomedical Sciences of Charles Sturt University, Australia where he has been since 2007. He is currently an Adjunct Professor at the Wonkwang Health Science University, Korea. We are grateful to Dr. Pak for his participation and support.
We welcome Distinguished Professor Edwin L. Cooper from University of California, USA, to join the Editorial Board of OBM Integrative and Complementary Medicine. Distinguished Prof. Cooper is the author/editor of more than 25 books and several hundred other publications dealing with comparative immunology, invertebrate immune systems and evolution of neuroimmune systems. His current research interests include antimicrobial peptides and CAM mechanisms with applications to biomedicine. For CAM, he has co-organized the International Symposium on Complementary and Alternative Medicine and has been a charter member of the new International Society of Complementary and Medical Research (ISCMR). The impact of Cooper’s work has been widely recognized that he has received five honorary degrees internationally and been awarded several international prizes in the sciences. We are grateful to Distinguished Prof. Cooper for his participation and support.
We welcome Professor Giacinto Bagetta from University of Calabria, Italy, to join the Editorial Board of OBM Integrative and Complementary Medicine. Prof. Bagetta is a widely recognized scientist who has extensive publications over 400, including 177 in international academic journals (PubMed), 25 book chapters and more than 250 abstracts in international conferences. In addition, Prof. Bagetta is member of Italian Pharmacology, Toxicology, Neuroscience and International Neurochemical Society and Italian Institute of Immunology and Pharmacology and co-founder of Società Italiana per la Ricerca sugli Olii Essenziali (SIROE). We are grateful to Prof. Bagetta for his participation and support.
We gratefully welcome the participation and support of Professor Michael Frass from Medical University of Vienna, to join the Editorial Board of OBM Integrative and Complementary Medicine. Prof. Frass, who specializes in both Internal and Intensive Care Medicine, additionally heads the Outpatients Unit: “Homeopathy in Malignant Disease"; and is the inventor of the "Combitube", a life-saving-emergency airway device who has published nearly 200 papers in world-renowned journals of medicine. We are grateful to Prof. Frass for his participation and support.
We welcome Dr. Lisa Conboy from Harvard Medical School, USA, to join the Editorial Board of OBM Integrative and Complementary Medicine. Dr. Conboy is a social epidemiologist and a sociologist with an interest in the associations between social factors and health. She is published in the areas of Women's Health, Complementary and Alternative Medicine, and Qualitative Research Methodology. An Instructor at Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, she is also the Research Director and faculty at the New England School of Acupuncture where she teaches research methodology and oversees multiple projects. She is also a founding member of the Kripalu research collaborative which examines the mental, physical, and spiritual benefits of yoga, meditation, Ayurveda and other holistic and mind-body therapies. We are grateful to Dr. Conboy for her participation and support.
We welcome Associate Professor Kylie O’Brien from National Institute of Integrative Medicine (NIIM), Australia, to join the Editorial Board of OBM Integrative and Complementary Medicine. Associate Professor O’Brien works as the Academic Director in NIIM, and was also previously Associate Dean at Victoria University. Her research has included investigations into the efficacy of Chinese herbal medicines on cardiovascular risk factors and osteoarthritis of the knee. She also conducted the world’s first comprehensive investigation into the reliability of the Chinese medicine diagnostic system, and the first research into the physiological effect of Toyohari acupuncture on physiological cardiovascular variables. She has authored several book chapters on Chinese medicine, as well as numerous journal publications. We are grateful to Associate Professor O’Brien for her participation and support.
We welcome Dr. Jenny Wilkinson from Charles Sturt University, Australia, to join the Editorial Board of OBM Integrative and Complementary Medicine. Dr. Wilkinson is the Associate Professor of Physiology in Charles Sturt University where she also has held a number of positions including Course Director in the Faculty of Science. Dr. Wilkinson's research focuses on complementary medicines and the study of the biological basis of their effects and the reasons why people, particularly health professionals, use complementary medicine. We are grateful to Dr. Wilkinson for her participation and support.
We welcome Dr. Leonard Wisneski from George Washington University, USA, to join the Editorial Board of OBM Integrative and Complementary Medicine. Dr. Wisneski is Clinical Professor of Medicine at George Washington University, and Adjunct Faculty in the Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Division of Integrative Physiology, at Georgetown University. He also holds faculty positions in the Department of Medicine as well as Department of Nursing at University of Colorado. In addition, he is currently Chairman of the board of Integrative Health Policy Consortium which promotes national legislation pertaining to integrative healthcare. Dr. Wisneski also has extensive publications and clinical experience in endocrinology and integrative medicine for over 30 years. We are grateful to Dr. Wisneski for his participation and support.
We welcome Dr. Stephanie Tjen-A-Looi from Susan Samueli Center for Integrative Medicine, University of California, USA, to join the Editorial Board of OBM Integrative and Complementary Medicine. Dr. Tjen-A-Looi completed her Ph.D from University of Wisconsin, Madison and is currently Project Scientist in University of California with expertise of acupuncture, cardiovascular regulation and neurophysiology. We are grateful Dr. Tjen-A-Looi for her participation and support.
We welcome Dr. Dana Ullman, MPH, CCH, from Homeopathic Educational Services, USA, to join the Editorial Board of OBM Integrative and Complementary Medicine. Dr. Ullman is one of the foremost spokespersons for homeopathic medicine in the United States. He has authored 10 books (8 on homeopathic medicine and 2 on natural medicine), and hundreds of articles, including many articles that have been published in peer-review journals. In addition, he is the founder and director of Homeopathic Educational Services, America’s leading resource center for homeopathic books, tapes, medicines, software, and correspondence courses. We are grateful Dr. Dana Ullman for his participation and support.
We sincerely welcome Prof. Manuel Fernandes-Ferreira from University of Porto, Portugal, to join the Editorial Board of OBM Integrative and Complementary Medicine. Since 2010, Prof. Ferreira has been the Tenured Full Professor of Biology at the University of Porto, where he is also the Director of doctoral programs. Prof. Ferreira is an outstanding scholar who has more than 30 years of experience in plant biotechnology, plant biochemistry, food nutrition, functional food, medicinal and aromatic plants, essential oils, etc. We are grateful to Prof. Ferreira for his participation and support.
We sincerely welcome Dr. Thomas Lundeberg from Danderyds Hospital AB, Sweden, to join the Editorial Board of OBM Integrative and Complementary Medicine. Dr. Lundeberg is a renowned scholar who specializes in acupuncture; integrative physiology; pain; biotechnology; analytical chemistry. He also holds the patent of N-acetyl-L-cysteine for use in in vitro fertilization. We appreciate Dr. Lundeberg for his participation and support.
We sincerely welcome Prof. Venkat Sharma from William Paterson University of New Jersey, USA, to join the Editorial Board of OBM Integrative and Complementary Medicine. Prof. Sharma is a renowned scholar who specializes in transcription and cytokine biology; immunology; nano-Immunology; biochemistry of leukemia; HIV-associated B-cell lymphomas and biomedical ethics. He is also the Dean of the College of Science and Health. We appreciate Prof. Sharma for his participation and support.
We welcome Professor Sing Kai Lo, Dean of Graduate School at The Education University of Hong Kong, China, to join the Editorial Board of OBM Integrative and Complementary Medicine. Professor Sing Kai Lo has been dedicated evidence-based health care, health-related quality of life, research methods and traditional Chinese medicine. He owns extensive publications in these fields, mainly in in highly ranked journals, which in turn have won him an excellent reputation. In addition, he has won numerous teaching awards and a strong background in capacity building. We appreciate Prof. Lo for his participation and support.
We welcome Doctor Raymond Chuen-Chung CHANG from The University of Hong Kong, China, to join the Editorial Board of OBM Integrative and Complementary Medicine. Doctor Chang is a renowned scholar whose researches focus on neurodegeneration, pathogenesis of Alzheimer’s disease, molecular mechanisms of risk factors for Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease dementia, lewy body dementias, neuroimmune responses / neuroimmunology, vision loss in Alzheimer’s disease and molecular signaling of neurodegeneration. We appreciate Prof. Oztekin for his participation and support.
We sincerely welcome Prof. Gabriella Hegyi from Pecs University, Hungary, to join the Editorial Board of OBM Integrative and Complementary Medicine. Prof. Hegyi is a distinguished professor who specializes in acupuncture and related techniques, homeopathy, manuale medicine, mechanic and electromagnetic biostimulation. She has been internationally recognized for her leading work and extensive publications in complementary and alternative medicine. We appreciate Prof. Hegyi for her participation and support.
We sincerely welcome Prof. Joao Bosco Guerreiro da Silva from Rio Preto Medical School (Famerp), Brazil, to join the Editorial Board of OBM Integrative and Complementary Medicine. Since 1989 he has been Professor of Acupuncture at the Rio Preto Medical School, where he is currently the chairman of the Acupuncture Service and helped to create the first medical residency in acupuncture. Prof. Silva is an outstanding scholar who experts in clinical acupuncture, acupuncture in pregnancy, acupuncture education, herbal medicine, integrative medicine, etc. We are grateful to Prof. Silva for his participation and support.
In the last years, a lot of research has been performed in the field of medical laser therapy. The overall results show that medical laser therapy’s potential is even higher than expected. Up to now, already thousands of practitioners worldwide are using external, interstitial and intravenous laser therapy for the benefit of their patients.
All the data is collected and presented at the annual ISLA conferences.
Current focus of research:
1. Photodynamic Tumortherapy
2. Anti-microbial photodynamic Therapy (Malaria and Tuberculosis)
3. Interstitial and intra-articular Lasertherapy (Arthrosis knee joint)
4. Transcranial Lasertherapy (Strokes)
For more details, please visit:
WFAS 2019 International Symposium on Acupuncture – Moxibution to be held on November 14 – 17, 2019 at the Kaya Palazzo Belek Hotel & Convention Center in Antalya – Turkey. The theme of this year’s symposium is ‘International Consensus on Acupuncture and Complementary Medicine’.
The symposium aims to bring together the health professionals from around the world working on acupuncture and complementary medicine to share their knowledge, skills and practices; to learn new techniques and complementary applications and to get take-home messages and practices for their daily workflow.
The scientific program will include plenary sessions, keynote lectures, panel discussions, workshops, practical applications on the clinical practices of acupuncture, moxibustion and complementary medicine in order for the participants to improve the quality and success of their daily practice. We are confident that this will be a very good opportunity for you to update the relevant data and their clinical applications and interactive moments will clarify the uncertainties.
We aim to create an environment that generates a great deal of dialogue among participants and the experts, leading to idea exchange and discussions, collaborations and most importantly friendship.
We would be delighted to welcome you in a socially enjoyable, scientifically rich, comfortable and warm environment. We want to feel completely at home, in Antalya, and in Turkey. Your participation and your contribution will be our strength.
For more details, please visit:
Next International Forum Neural Therapy that will take place in Vienna from October 4th to 6th 2019. Traditionally this is a high quality scientific symposium not only on Neural Therapy, but also addressing issues of broad interest in complementary medicine. It will certainly catch your attention. A choice of very specific topics and a wide range of workshops compose a colorful scientific program and provide hands- on experiences.
We hope to open a lively panel discussion concerning neural therapeutic techniques: A lecture on “The respective benefits and disadvantages of deep and superficial injection techniques” should lead to a professional debate about efficiency and safety of Neural Therapy.
NT and Acupuncture
Neuromodular trigger (Interference fields)
NT and Lasertherapy
NT and Orthomolecular Medicine
NT and Manuel Medicine
NT and Gynaecology
PRP – additional therapeutic possibilities
For more details, please visit: http://forum-ntaustria.at/
• Medical Laser Therapy
• PRP and Laser
• Pain Therapy
• Transcranial Laser Therapy
• Regenerative Medicine
• Photodynamic Tumor Therapy
• Laserneedle Acupuncture
• Sonodynamic Tumor Therapy
• Intravenous Laser Therapy
• Stem Cells and Laser
• Interstitial and Intra-articular Laser Therapy
For more details, please visit: https://www.isla-laser.org/en/isla-congress-2019/
Ear acupuncture - both in research and in clinical practice – is gaining increasing emphasis worldwide. In 2013, we have launched the tradition of creating a platform - by raising this profession higher level - for professional workers to on the one hand to be informed of the results of quality, evidence -based research, and on the other hand to learn of inspiring case studies, which they may integrate in their daily practice to improve people's quality of life.
We cordially welcome our guests to the exhibition stalls to ensure the effectiveness of their work with new tools and information.
For more details, please visit: http://www.earacucongress.com/en/
Welcome to the 4th Asian Conference for Medical Laser Applications and Regenerative Medicine presented by the International Society for Medial Laser Applications (ISLA). This conference aims at bringing together physicians of various specialties sharing a common interest in advancing Laser Therapy for the patients‘ benefit. This meeting is an excellent chance to get into contact with the leading experts from both fields and to meet old and hopefully new collaborators and friends.
Basic Mechanisms of Low-Level Lasers and Latest Research
Regenerative Medicine (PRP, Stem Cells, Injectables)
Anti-Microbial Therapies (Malaria, Hepatitis B/C, Lyme Disease)
Revolutionary Cancer Diagnostics
Photodynamic and Sonodynamic Cancer Therapy
Topical, Intravenous and Interstitital/Intra-articular Laser Applications
For more details, please visit:
The Annual World Congress of High-Tech Acupuncture and Integrative Medicine (HTA&IM), initiated from 2014, had been successfully organized in Hangzhou and twice in Nanjing, and attracted more than 700 participants from 50 countries. HTA&IM congresses contribute to offering professionals in the field of high-tech acupuncture a multidisciplinary informative cooperative platform, and it has been the most definite and grand High-Tech Acupuncture event in Asia. The HTA&IM2017, with the theme of “Exploring Different Kinds of Modern Acupuncture and Integrative Medicine” will be held during September 25-27, 2017 in Xi’an, China.
To read the welcome letter from the Chair and more information, please visit: http://www.bitcongress.com/
Welcome to the 9th International Auriculotherapy Symposium to be held August 10-12, 2017 in Singapore. At the 8th Symposium at John Hopkins University, Montgomery Campus, Maryland in May 2014, Singapore was chosen as the next symposium destination as it is a truly modern green city and gateway to South East Asia and the Asia Pacific nations. The symposium will suit both the novice and advanced clinician with the length and breadth of knowledge to be presented. We invite you to contribute to the evidence base for auriculotherapy in 2017. There will be awards for the best research project and best poster presentation. In 2017, lifetime achievement awards will also be presented. Sponsors are very welcome to support one/several of the speakers, contribute towards the awards and the gala dinner.
For more details, please visit: http://www.auriculotherapysymposium.com/.
Welcome to the XXIst International Congress "Phytopharm 2017" in conjunction with 10th Anniversary of the TCM Research Center Graz to be held on July 2-5, 2017, Graz, Austria. More details are provided at: http://www.doclinika.ru/phyto2017.html.
To celebrate the 80th Anniversary of China Pharmaceutical University, the 3rd High-Tech Acupuncture and Integrative Medicine Congress (HTA&IM-2016) will be held during November 16-19, 2016, at Nanjing, China. With 7 Supporting Concurrent Conferences in Medicinal Chemistry, Drug Delivery, Cancer Immunotherapy, Regenerative Medicine and Stem Cells, Catalytic Asymmetric Synthesis, Microbes, and Modern Chinese Medicine, as well as Variety Social Events, the conferences will attract 4000+ Participants from 80+ Countries with 500+ Poster and Exhibition Presentations to join in the grand festival!
HTA&IM-2016 as one Concurrent Conference of the Celebration Event will organize 12+ Parallel Sessions as well as Keynote Forum, and will approach 100+ Oral Presentations and 300+ Participants. You can enjoy other 8 concurrent conferences Free with Only One Registration Pass of HTA&IM!
OBM Integrative and Complementary Medicine welcomes the following types of articles: original research, review, communication, opinion, case report, comment, conference report, technical note, book review, etc. There is no restriction on the length of the papers, color figures, supplementary file types. More details please see Instructions for Authors.
by Fengxia Liang and Gerhard Litscher
OBM Integrative and Complementary Medicine 2020
Published: 26 February 2020
by Randolph James et al.
OBM Integrative and Complementary Medicine 2020
Published: 06 September 2019
by Patricia Gerbarg et al.
OBM Integrative and Complementary Medicine 2020
Published: 12 July 2019
by Istvan Széchenyi
OBM Integrative and Complementary Medicine 2020
Published: 26 February 2019
by Peta Stapleton et al.
OBM Integrative and Complementary Medicine 2020
Published: 15 February 2019