Table of Contents

Open Access

ISSN 2573-4407

OBM Neurobiology , Volume 5 , Issue 2 (2021)

Pages: 246

Published: October 2021

(This book is a printed edition that was published in OBM Neurobiology )

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Format: Soft Cover


Cover story:Resistance to DNA damaging agents can occur by inefficient repair that allows damaged DNA to be misreplicated. This activity, termed translesion DNA synthesis, also drives mutagenesis to create more malignant cancers. Small molecules that inhibit translesion DNA synthesis activity are being developed to improve the efficacy of DNA damaging agents.  View this paper.

Volume 5,Issue 2

Open Access Review

Psilocybin as a Novel Pharmacotherapy for Treatment-Refractory Anorexia Nervosa

Received: 08 April 2021;  Published: 24 June 2021;  doi: 10.21926/obm.neurobiol.2102102


Anorexia Nervosa (AN) is a major health problem with one of the highest mortalities and treatment costs of any psychiatric condition. Cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) is currently the most widely used treatment for AN in adults but provides remission rates ≤ 50%. Treatment drop-out is exceedingly high and those that persevere with treatment often relapse, causing increased risk of morbidity and mortality. There is an urgent need to find new interventions, especially as there are n [...]

Open Access Opinion

Establishing and Evaluating a Multidisciplinary Community-Based Sleep Clinic for Children with Neurodevelopmental Difficulties in Inner London

Received: 31 January 2021;  Published: 15 June 2021;  doi: 10.21926/obm.neurobiol.2102101


We describe our experience of setting up and evaluating a community-based multi-disciplinary sleep service for children with neurodevelopmental disorders and psychosocial vulnerabilities.Referrals are accepted for children (1-18 years of age) with persistent sleep problems, and neurodevelopmental difficulties or significant psychosocial adversity, living in two inner-city boroughs.Holistic sleep assessment involves 1-hour Paediatrician-led consultation, often followed by Psychologist [...]

Open Access Original Research

The Trails Making Test. Does a Single Trial Reflect Performance Capability?

Received: 08 January 2021;  Published: 07 June 2021;  doi: 10.21926/obm.neurobiol.2102100


Information processing speed (Reaction time, RT) to a single administration of the Trails A and Trails B components of the Trail Making Test (TMT) is used in the assessment of brain and behavioural functional integrity across the lifespan in both clinical and research contexts. Although the clinical utility of such single trial-related and thus rapidly gained results, is recognised, it is possible that its administration as a single trial only, precludes its ability to provide a more [...]

Open Access Case Report

Management of Agitation, Delirium, and Catatonia in Intubated COVID-19 Patients: A Case Series & Rationale for Valproate Sodium Use During Extubation

Received: 25 February 2021;  Published: 25 May 2021;  doi: 10.21926/obm.neurobiol.2102099


The complete spectrum of neuropsychiatric effects of SARS-CoV-2 acute respiratory distress syndrome has yet to be fully appreciated, particularly in intubated patients. Manifestations including delirium and catatonia need to be considered in intubated COVID-19 patients. Medications known to exhibit neuroprotective effects, like valproate, can assist in agitation related to sedative withdrawal during extubation. This case series reports on the management of agitation, delirium, and ca [...]

Open Access Original Research

Ocular Pressure-Volume Relationship and Ganglion Cell Death in Glaucoma

Received: 24 November 2020;  Published: 21 May 2021;  doi: 10.21926/obm.neurobiol.2102098


We studied how GC death in glaucoma related to the intraocular pressure (IOP), eyeball volume (VS) and elasticity (volumetric KS and tensile ES), and eyeball volume-pressure relation. Glaucomatous GC loss was studied in DBA/2J (D2) mice with wild-type mice as controls. GCs were retrogradely identified and observed with a confocal microscope. The elasticity calculation was also done on published data from patients tr [...]

Open Access Review

A Systematic Review of the Biological Processes Involved in Deep-Brain Stimulation for Parkinson's disease: A Focus on the Potential Disease-Modifying Effects

Received: 05 February 2021;  Published: 19 May 2021;  doi: 10.21926/obm.neurobiol.2102097


Deep-Brain Stimulation (DBS) is an important treatment option for the management of Parkinson’s disease (PD) and is a common symptomatic treatment. However, an increasing number of studies have examined the biological processes to assess if DBS can also modify the natural history of PD by acting on its pathophysiological mechanisms. Relevant literature published up to November 2020 was systematically searched on databases such as PubMed, ISI Web of Knowledge, Academic Search Index, a [...]

Open Access Review

Examining the Role of Specialized DNA Polymerases in the Development of Temozolomide Resistance in Glioblastoma Multiforme

Received: 09 February 2021;  Published: 18 May 2021;  doi: 10.21926/obm.neurobiol.2102096


Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is an extremely malignant type of primary brain tumor that exhibits a high mortality rate. Current standard therapy involves surgery followed by radiation and treatment with the DNA-alkylating agent, temozolomide (TMZ). While TMZ treatment can extend post-operative survival, most patients develop resistance to TMZ which leads to a significant increase in mortality. At the molecular level, TMZ produces a variety of different DNA lesions including N

Open Access Review

Computational Modelling of Deep Brain Stimulation for Parkinson's Disease: A Critical Review

Received: 23 November 2020;  Published: 14 May 2021;  doi: 10.21926/obm.neurobiol.2102095


We review the use of numerical and computational models to explore deep brain stimulation for Parkinson’s disease (DBS PD). It is a review for the modeler and those interested in PD DBS modelling methods and their value. The main model categories of active fiber, mean field, driving force, and volume of tissue activated are described as well as many modelling techniques. We give the basic requirements for a DBS PD model and current theories of DBS mechanism of action, PD etiology, and movement s [...]

Open Access Original Research

A Participation-Focused Exercise Intervention for Children with Neurodevelopmental Disorders: Feasibility, Acceptability, and Impact on Sleep and Wellbeing

Received: 17 November 2020;  Published: 06 May 2021;  doi: 10.21926/obm.neurobiol.2102094


Sleep-related difficulties are common in children with neurodevelopmental disabilities. Poor sleep health is associated with detrimental impacts not only for the child/young person, but also their family members. Exercise is considered to be important for sleep health, improving duration and quality of sleep in adult studies, however there is limited literature on impact in children with neurodevelopmental disabilities, and barriers to participation exist for this group. We set out t [...]

Open Access Research Article

Visuospatial Executive Functions are Improved by Brief Brain Training in Young Rugby Players - Evidence of Far Transfer Test Effects: A Pilot Study

Received: 05 March 2019;  Published: 06 May 2021;  doi: 10.21926/obm.neurobiol.2102093


Brain training apps are becoming increasingly popular for at home use and as an adjunct to more traditional therapies. There is uncertainty about whether the effects of brain training transfer to real-world cognition, or performance on other cognitive assessment tests, or is specific only to the brain training app. Executive functions (EF’s) are higher-order cognitive processes important for activities of everyday living and autonomous goal-directed behaviour [1]. EF’s are associated [...]

Open Access Perspective

Psychological Considerations in the Etiology and Pathophysiology of Migraines

Received: 18 March 2021;  Published: 02 May 2021;  doi: 10.21926/obm.neurobiol.2102092


Although studies to understand the pathogenesis of migraines are in progress, no theory has adequately explained the etiology and pathophysiology of migraines to date. This has affected the development of treatment strategies for migraineurs. Currently, the pharmacological treatment for migraines provides both acute and prophylactic options to patients based on a biomedical model of pain. However, patients’ adherence to oral migraine preventive medication (OMPM) is poor, and their pe [...]

Open Access Case Report

Lamotrigine-Associated Progressive Dysphasia and Cognitive Dysfunction

Received: 01 December 2020;  Published: 20 April 2021;  doi: 10.21926/obm.neurobiol.2102091


Lamotrigine is generally accepted as a well-tolerated medication with few cognitive side effects. Here, we report a case of a 62-year old female with a severe, rapidly progressive dementia-like process which was completely reversed after reduction of lamotrigine. Associated findings included hyperreflexia with clonus, ataxia, Wernicke-like aphasia, global cognitive impairment, burst suppression on electroencephalogram (EEG), and bilateral parietal hypo-metabolism on fluorodeoxyglucose-Positron [...]