Current Issue 2018  Archive 2017 

Editor-in-Chief of OBM Hepatology and Gastroenterology

Osamu Yokosuka is an Emeritus Professor of Chiba University, Japan. He graduated from Chiba University School of Medicine in 1975 then worked as a trainee under Professor K. Okuda in Chiba University Hospital till 1978. Dr. Yokosuka was a research fellow worked under Professor S. Scherlock and Professor B. H. Billing in Royal Free Hospital, London, UK from 1978 to 1980; under Professor M. Omata in Chiba University from 1980 to 1985; and under Dr. J Summers in Fox Chase Cancer Center, PA, USA in 1984. In 1985, he received a Degree of Doctor of Medical Science, and served as an Assistant Professor in Chiba University till 1994, then as Lecturer in Medicine till 2006 when he was appointed as Director and Professor of Medicine. From 2013 to 2015, he served as the Dean of Chiba University School of Medicine.

Dr. Yokosuka was the Secretary General of APASL (2008-2014). In 2016, he was elected as the President of APASL Tokyo, the President of 52nd Annual Meeting of Japan Society of Hepatology, and the President of Funabashi Central Hospital. Dr. Yokosuka’s research mainly focuses on Hepatitis and Hepatocellular Carcinoma. So far, he has published more than 700 original papers.


The Associate Editor of OBM Hepatology and Gastroenterology

Tatsuo Kanda received a medical degree in 1991 at Niigata University School of Medicine, Japan, and his PhD in 1999 at Chiba University Graduate School of Medicine, Japan. He had post-doctor training for 3 years under Prof. Ratna Ray and Prof. Ranjit Ray at Saint Louis University, St. Louis, MO, USA. In Dec. 2008, Tatsuo Kanda became a Tenure-track Associate Professor at Department of Medicine and Clinical Oncology, Chiba University, Graduate School of Medicine, Japan. In Feb. 2013, Tatsuo Kanda was nominated a permanent Associate Professor at Department of Gastroenterology and Nephrology, Chiba University, Graduate School of Medicine, Japan. In 2017, Tatsuo Kanda became an Associate Professor, Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Department of Internal Medicine, Nihon University School of Medicine. For ~25 years, he has focused his scientific interests on the topics related to liver diseases including acute liver failure, viral hepatitis and autoimmune liver diseases, and worked with Prof. Osamu Yokosuka. Tatsuo Kanda is also an expert for hepatitis A virus (HAV), HBV and HCV, and translation and replication of these viruses, and hepatocarcinogenesis. With his expertise in antiviral therapies and hepatitis virus research, Tatsuo Kanda also sees a lot of patients in clinical daily practice. Tatsuo Kanda has published more than 200 articles in peer-reviewed Journal.

Special Issue

Current Advancement of Islet Cell Transplantation in the Treatment of Diabetes Mellitus

Submission Deadline: March 31, 2018 (Open)               Submit Now

Guest Editor

Kenneth L. Brayman, MD, PhD, FACS
Professor of Surgery, Medicine, and Biomedical Engineering, Director of Kidney, Pancreas and Islet Transplant Programs, Director of Center for Cellular Therapy and Biologic Theraputics. Department of Surgery, University of Virginia Health System, 1215 Lee Street, Charlottesville, VA 22908, USA
E-Mail: [email protected]
Research Interests: transplant immunosuppression, chronic allograft nephropathy, solid organ transplantation in patients with HIV, islet cell transplantation, transplantation tolerance, gene therapy and xenotransplantation

About This Topic

OBM Transplantation is an international peer-reviewed Open Access journal, which covers all evidence-based scientific studies related to transplantation. This is seeking original manuscripts for a Special Issue on cell-based therapy for diabetes: “Current Advancement of Islet Cell Transplantation in the Treatment of Diabetes mellitus” scheduled to appear in the first half of 2018.

Islet transplantation and pancreas transplantation have been becoming promising therapies for diabetes, which can restore normal blood glucose and prevent diabetes complications. However, there are many grand challenges for maintaining long-term graft function and insulin independence in diabetes patients.

The special issue will provide a forum for presenting current research works and clinical results showing advancement of cell-based therapy for diabetes, including auto-transplantation, all-transplantation, inflammatory reaction involved islet transplantation, islet macro and microencapsulation, stem cell therapy, as well as in vitro and in vivo imaging of the islets. The special issue will also be open to any author, but mainly invited by guest editor. Each submission will be reviewed by at least two reviewers to ensure a very high quality of papers selected for the Special Issue.

Planned Papers

Title: Introduction of the Special Issue
Authors: Kenneth L. Brayman, Jose Oberholzer

Title: Pancreatic Allo Islet Transplantation: Update on Current Condition
Author: Rauf Shahbazov

Title: The Role of Auto Islet Transplantation in the Prevention of the Development of Diabetes Mellitus after Total Pancreatectomy
Author: Arash Nickholch

Title: Inflammatory Reaction in Islet Transplantation
Author: Mazhar Kanak

Title: Can An Islet be "Isolated" from the Immune System by Encapsulation?
Author: Meriegeng Qi

Title: Stem-Cell Therapy in Islet and Pancreas Transplantation
Author: Preeti Chhabra

Title: Role of Artificial Pancreas in islet Transplantation
Author: Kovatchev Boris

Title: Scaffolding for Diabetes: Reality or Myth.
Author: Yong Wang

Title: In Vitro and In vivo Imaging for Diabetes Research and Treatment
Author: Dongfeng Pan

Title: Islet Xenotransplantation for the Treatment of Type 1 Diabetes
Authors: Masayuki Shimoda MD PhD and Shinichi Matsumoto MD PhD, National Center for Global Health and Medicine, Japan
Allogeneic islet transplantation has been established to prevent severe hypoglycemia for unstable type 1 diabetic patients. Recent phase 3 clinical trial clearly demonstrated the benefit of allogeneic islet transplantation. Severe hypoglycemia is serious issue not only for type 1 diabetic patients but also type 2 diabetic patients especially aged patients. Considering the possible demands for such patients, donor shortage will be the serious issue. To solve this issue, islet xenotransplantation using porcine islets is a promising remedy. There are several advantages of porcine islets comparing with human islets including unlimited and on demand supplies, higher quality of islets from healthy donor, safer with designated pathogen free (DPF) donor pigs and possible gene modifications. Comparing ES and iPS derived islets, porcine islets have more profound clinical experiences with evidences of safety and efficacy since 1990s. In addition, promising outcomes were published using porcine islets to restore normoglycemia in the non-human primate diabetes models. One of the major concerns of islet xenotransplantation is zoonotic infections. To prevent this possible complication, using DPF status donor pigs, and monitoring porcine endogenous retrovirus (PERV) are key elements. In addition, compliance with regulatory rule is critically important to prevent spreading the zoonotic infections. Recently, international xenotransplantation association updated their consensus statements to promote islet xenotransplantation and it emphasized the importance of the regulatory compliance. In 2014, a clinical trial of encapsulated porcine islet xenotransplantation for the treatment of type 1 diabetes under comprehensive regulation was published. This study demonstrated the safety of islet xenotransplantation and some efficacy. Recently, it was published the encapsulated porcine islet xenotransplantation provided clinical benefit for type 1 diabetic patients. Encapsulated porcine islet xenotransplantation seems promising, and several groups have demonstrated improved capsules which may solve the fibrosis issue of capsules. CRISPR/CAS9 system makes the gene editing technology stable and easy. In fact, it was demonstrated that PERVs were completely eliminated with CRISPR technology. Human compatible pig will be made with this technology. Eventually, human pancreas will be created in pig body with blastocyst complementation technology. These aggressive scientific advances will bring islet xenotransplantation as a standard therapy for diabetic patients.

Title: Autoimmunity in Autologous Islet Transplantation
Authors: Khawla F. Ali1, Vicente T. San Martin1, Tyler Stevens2, Matthew Walsh2, Rita Bottino3, Betul Hatipoglu1
1. Endocrinology and Metabolism Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH, USA;
2. Digestive Disease Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH, USA;
3. Institute for Cellular Therapeutics, Allegheny-Singer Research Institute, Pittsburgh, PA, USA;

Title: Intrapancreatic parenchymal cell transplantation (IPPCT) as a useful tool for study in cell-based therapy towards type I diabetes
Authors: Masahiro Sato, Emi Inada, Shingo Nakamura, Issei Saitoh

Title: Delayed clinically significant portal hypertension after TPIAT
Authors: Nicholas Lim, Gregory Beilman, Timothy Pruett

Title: Microbiology of High Risk Patients After Pancreatectomy and Autologous Islet Transplant
Authors: Daniel Robinson, Jennifer A Logue, William E Scott III, Minna Honkanen-Scott, Julian DeHaviland, Ahmad Abou-Saleh, Gabre M Hany, James AM Shaw, Derek M Manas, Richard M Charnley, Steven A White
Aim: Autologous islet transplantation (AIT) after pancreas resection has the potential to minimise glucose intolerance. Despite cell isolation being performed in a GMP facility some patients may be at an increased risk of infection. Two such cohorts could be those who have had previous drainage procedures (biliary or pancreatic) or those who have had significant pancreatic trauma. The risk of transmitting infection through the islet preparation in these types of patients is not well reported.
Methods: To date we have performed 8 islet autologous transplants (IAT) with 6 being in the relevant ‘high risk’ cohorts (previous pancreaticojejunostomy n=2, hepaticojejunostomy n=1 and pancreatic trauma n=3). Islets were isolated in a GMP HTA licensed facility. The pancreas is decontaminated with Fungizone, cephalosporin and a betadine wash prior to islet solation. We use BacT/ALERT SN culture bottles for detection of microbes in the pancreatic transport fluid (TF) and final washing (FW) steps. We also perform environmental monitoring by finger dabs, settle plates and from within the class II hoods. We also culture from the final islet preparation and perform a gram stain.
Results: Islet yields were significantly higher in the pancreatic trauma cohort (range 20,000 to 298,149 IEQ). All of those in this group (2 adults and 1 paediatric) remain insulin independent after more than 18 months follow up. In the drainage group 2 are C-peptide positive with the final patient still in the early recovery phase but insulin independent. One pancreatic trauma patient grew staph epidermidis in the TF but had no post-operative infections. Another required a re-laparotomy after developing an infected collection in the pancreatic bed which cultured staph aureus after no growth during the isolation process. One pancreatic drainage patient had contaminated TF and a FW but did not develop any systemic sepsis other than a minor wound infection. The previous hepaticojejunostomy patient had contaminated TF and FW concordant with a bile swab taken at the time of the procedure (E. coli and Enterococcus casseliflavus) but developed no infectious complications.
Conclusions: Patients perceived to be at ‘high risk’ of developing contaminated islet isolations can be safely transplanted without any infection risk. Culture of microbes during pancreas transportation and islet isolation do not always lead to systemic infective episodes after transplantation despite also undergoing major abdominal surgery.