OBM Neurobiology is an international peer-reviewed Open Access journal published quarterly online by LIDSEN Publishing Inc. By design, the scope of OBM Neurobiology is broad, so as to reflect the multidisciplinary nature of the field of Neurobiology that interfaces biology with the fundamental and clinical neurosciences. As such, OBM Neurobiology embraces rigorous multidisciplinary investigations into the form and function of neurons and glia that make up the nervous system, either individually or in ensemble, in health or disease. OBM Neurobiology welcomes original contributions that employ a combination of molecular, cellular, systems and behavioral approaches to report novel neuroanatomical, neuropharmacological, neurophysiological and neurobehavioral findings related to the following aspects of the nervous system: Signal Transduction and Neurotransmission; Neural Circuits and Systems Neurobiology; Nervous System Development and Aging; Neurobiology of Nervous System Diseases (e.g., Developmental Brain Disorders; Neurodegenerative Disorders).
OBM Neurobiology publishes research articles, technical reports and invited topical reviews. Although the OBM Neurobiology Editorial Board encourages authors to be succinct, there is no restriction on the length of the papers. Authors should present their results in as much detail as possible, as reviewers are encouraged to emphasize scientific rigor and reproducibility.
Submission Deadline: August 30, 2019 (Open) Submit Now
Steven I. Dworkin, PhD
Professor, Department of Psychology, Western Illinois University, Macomb, IL 61455, USA
E-Mail: [email protected]
Research Interests: neurobehavioral pharmacology; drug abuse; pharmacologic treatment of behavioral disorders; cigarette smoking cessation; experimental analysis of behavior
About This Topic
Behavioral neuropharmacology focuses on the study of drug dependence and how drug addiction affects the human mind, Anxiety and Autism, Measuring neural activity in Drug abuse, Alcoholism- tolerance to and physical dependence, and properties are mediated through its effects on dopamine neurons in the mesolimbic reward pathway, which connects the ventral tegmental area to the nucleus accumbens, Post-traumatic stress disorder and borderline personality disorder, clinical depression and enhanced treatments. Drugs of abuse alter the way people think, feel, and behave by disrupting neurotransmission, the process of communication between brain cells. Drug dependence and addiction are features of a brain disease caused by drugs' cumulative impacts on neurotransmission. However, terrifying events can cause Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Symptoms of PTSD may include flashbacks, nightmares and severe anxiety, as well as uncontrollable thoughts about the event. Most research has shown that the major part of the brain that reinforces addiction through neurochemical reward is the nucleus accumbens, which is closely connected with the interactions of neurotransmitters, neuropeptides, neurohormones, neuromodulators, enzymes, second messengers, co-transporters, ion channels, and receptor proteins in the central and peripheral nervous systems. In this special issue, we aim to the introduction of the relative research in behavioral neuropharmacology. Submissions are now open and will be fully considered for publication.
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Behavioral neuropharmacology; Drug abuse; Alcoholism; Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD); Anxiety and Autism
Title: A neurochemical solution to the trolley problem
Author: Daniel Z. Lieberman
Affiliation: Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, George Washington University School of Medicine and Health Sciences, Washington, DC, USA
Title: Lipids and Steroid Hormones Concentrations in Children and Adolescents with Clinical Depression
Authors: Ioannis Syros 1, 2, Pervanidou Panagiota 3, liapi Charis 4, Apostolakou Filia 5, George P Chrousos 3, Kolaitis Gerasimos 1
1. Department of Child Psychiatry, School of Medicine, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, "Aghia Sophia" Children's Hospital, Athens, Greece
2. Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Unit, “Sotiria” General Hospital, Athens, Greece
3. 1st Department of Pediatrics, School of Medicine, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, “Aghia Sophia” Children’s Hospital, Athens, Greece
4. Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Athens, Greece
5. Biochemistry Department, "Aghia Sophia" Children's Hospital, Athens, Greece
Depression; Adolescents; Children; Lipids; Steroid Hormones; Salivary Cortisol; Correlation
Title: Biological 'Pathways' Linking Depression with Lipid Changes
Author: Syros Ioannis
Affiliation: Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Unit, “Sotiria” General Hospital, Athens, Greece
Background: The assumption of the direct biological link between lipid levels and depression has not yet been clarified; differences in design and inadequate control of confounders in the relative analysis are parameters that appear to affect this relationship. As far as the design of the above studies is concerned, it does not allow for consistent assumptions on the direction of this relationship. On the contrary, Depression is a non-homogeneous group of psychiatric disorders, with possible variation in expression of subtypes. Therefore, it would be challenging to argue that the biological processes through which these disorders are related to changes in cholesterol are similar.
Purpose: The description of the biological mechanisms involved in the association between depression and lipid changes.
Methods: Systematic searches were conducted of all relevant bibliographic databases using the following terms: depression, depressive symptoms, mood, lipids, cholesterol, lipoproteins, correlation. Search covered the period from 1986 to 2017 and was conducted on September 2018.
Results: Serotonin alterations probably plays an essential role in the lipid and depression assosiation; low lipid levels coexist with decreased serotonergic activity, while low serotonin concentrations have been detected in depressed individuals. Lower serum cholesterol may accompanied by lower cholesterol in the brain cell membrane, resulting in decreased serotonin uptake by the blood and decreased entry into brain cells. Other studies do not confirm this link, while some authors suggest that high cholesterol levels can also contribute to serotonin dysfunction.
Some studies have demonstrated atherosclerotic lipid profiles in depressed individuals. Stress - induced lipolysis model probably plays the most important role. The induced mobilization of the noradrenergic system triggers lipolysis by activating lipoprotein lipase. Thus, free fatty acids produced are available in the liver and circulation to produce lipoproteins.
Including the above data, depression appears to be both an internal stress triggering factor and a consequence of the stress system deregulation, resulting in dyshomeostasis, leading to both dyslipidemia and a further emotional burden.
Conclusions: Apart from the influences of unhealthy life style behaviors, the presence of a direct biological association between depression and lipid alterations, cannot yet be supported with consistency. However, many studies provide reliable data on the presence of these mechanisms.
Siavash Jafari, Mariko Vaughan, Souzan Baharlou, Pooria Ghadiri, Nazila Hassanabadi, Ashkan Nasr
Received: August 11, 2019; Published: September 09, 2019; doi:10.21926/obm.neurobiol.1903039