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Editor-in-Chief of OBM Hepatology and Gastroenterology

Osamu Yokosuka is an Emeritus Professor of Chiba University, Japan. He graduated from Chiba University School of Medicine in 1975 then worked as a trainee under Professor K. Okuda in Chiba University Hospital till 1978. Dr. Yokosuka was a research fellow worked under Professor S. Scherlock and Professor B. H. Billing in Royal Free Hospital, London, UK from 1978 to 1980; under Professor M. Omata in Chiba University from 1980 to 1985; and under Dr. J Summers in Fox Chase Cancer Center, PA, USA in 1984. In 1985, he received a Degree of Doctor of Medical Science, and served as an Assistant Professor in Chiba University till 1994, then as Lecturer in Medicine till 2006 when he was appointed as Director and Professor of Medicine. From 2013 to 2015, he served as the Dean of Chiba University School of Medicine.

Dr. Yokosuka was the Secretary General of APASL (2008-2014). In 2016, he was elected as the President of APASL Tokyo, the President of 52nd Annual Meeting of Japan Society of Hepatology, and the President of Funabashi Central Hospital. Dr. Yokosuka’s research mainly focuses on Hepatitis and Hepatocellular Carcinoma. So far, he has published more than 700 original papers.


The Associate Editor of OBM Hepatology and Gastroenterology

Tatsuo Kanda received a medical degree in 1991 at Niigata University School of Medicine, Japan, and his PhD in 1999 at Chiba University Graduate School of Medicine, Japan. He had post-doctor training for 3 years under Prof. Ratna Ray and Prof. Ranjit Ray at Saint Louis University, St. Louis, MO, USA. In Dec. 2008, Tatsuo Kanda became a Tenure-track Associate Professor at Department of Medicine and Clinical Oncology, Chiba University, Graduate School of Medicine, Japan. In Feb. 2013, Tatsuo Kanda was nominated a permanent Associate Professor at Department of Gastroenterology and Nephrology, Chiba University, Graduate School of Medicine, Japan. In 2017, Tatsuo Kanda became an Associate Professor, Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Department of Internal Medicine, Nihon University School of Medicine. For ~25 years, he has focused his scientific interests on the topics related to liver diseases including acute liver failure, viral hepatitis and autoimmune liver diseases, and worked with Prof. Osamu Yokosuka. Tatsuo Kanda is also an expert for hepatitis A virus (HAV), HBV and HCV, and translation and replication of these viruses, and hepatocarcinogenesis. With his expertise in antiviral therapies and hepatitis virus research, Tatsuo Kanda also sees a lot of patients in clinical daily practice. Tatsuo Kanda has published more than 200 articles in peer-reviewed Journal.

Special Issue

Got Aging? Examining Later-life Development from a Positive Aging Perspective

Submission Deadline: October 31, 2018 (Open)                Submit Now

Guest Editor

Lisa Hollis-Sawyer, PhD
Gerontology Program Coordinator, Associate Professor of Psychology, Department of Psychology, Northeastern Illinois University, Chicago, IL, USA
E-Mail: [email protected]
Research Interests: Aging workforce and retirement issues; elder care; older learners

About This Topic

The focus of the special issue will be the examination of positive aging processes and outcomes across different fields/disciplines and research approaches. The general theme of the special issue will be on the aging field's shift in focus from increasing older adults' quantity of years to increasing their quality of years. Topics will cover issues of later-life adaptation, resiliency, positive mental and physical health, and optimized person-environment "fit" in living environments, among other research topics.

Planned Papers

Title: Intergenerational interaction and social roles of old age
Authors: Megumi Tabuchi 1, Asako Miura 2
Affiliations: School of Psychology, Chukyo University, Japan
2 Kwansei Gakuin University, Japan

Title: Does dementia have a silver lining?: Positive life experiences following a diagnosis
Authors: Shoshana H. Bardach, PhD, Christina Moore, BA, Sarah D. Holmes, MSW, Richard R. Murphy, MD, Allison Gibson, PhD, Gregory A. Jicha

Title: Acceptance of Information and Communication Technologies for Healthy and Active Aging: Results from Three Field Studies
Authors: Filomena Papa, Bartolomeo Sapio, Enrico Nicolò
Affiliation: Fondazione Ugo Bordoni, viale del Policlinico 147, 00161 Roma, Italy
Increasing life expectancy has led to higher expectations amongst people not only to live longer, but to live longer with a high quality of life. In this respect Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) can provide useful and effective tools. The main focus of current technological trends in health care is usually on the technological solutions to support disease management and to support medical records. ICTs may also enhance communication between users, playing a significantly positive role in the social and mental well-being of elderly people.
Several barriers like access, performance, psychological, and privacy issues still exist against fully deploying ICT solutions for the elderly. In particular, rejection attitudes toward new ICT services can arise in groups with low income and poor education. In order to overcome the above mentioned barriers, the investigation of factors affecting acceptance of ICT services by elderly people provides useful insight to identify adequate policies to promote acceptance of innovative ICT solutions by older adults. As for user acceptance, one of the most recognized models for innovative and emerging new technologies is the Unified Theory of Acceptance of Use of Technology (UTAUT) extensively used in various application fields. This model comprises different aspects of usage behavior, including intention to use the system, perceived usefulness, and perceived ease of use of ICT services. Using the UTAUT model as general reference framework, the present paper discusses factors affecting acceptance of ICT services by elderly people, starting from the results of three field studies realized in recent years with the direct involvement of elderly people.
Field study 1. This study presents a qualitative investigation of user reactions, opinions, and sentiments about a TV-based technological solution to promote social interaction of less educated elderly people, i.e. those individuals who, because of poor education, low income, and, possibly, linguistic barriers, still find it difficult to use computers in order to improve their socialization. Experimental data were collected by extensive trials involving 40 end users in the European AAL project Easy Reach. A methodology called “scenario engagement” was applied to get participants engaged in a live demonstration with the mediation of a facilitator who assisted elderly people to interact with the system. Results point out that the investigated solution can be effectively employed to foster social interaction, particularly when it is introduced in a collective use environment (e.g. Senior Center). Although the focus of the investigation was on information and communication technology-enabled social environments, the end users themselves strongly suggested to include in future system releases extra functions, considered as essential opportunities for their potential digital lives: medical or health services and bridges toward Public Administrations. Field study 2. This study shows a quantitative investigation about the acceptance by citizens of one of the most advanced implementations of the Electronic Health Record (EHR) in Italy. The UTAUT model and its extension UTAUT2 were adopted as general reference frameworks. The investigation was conducted using the CAWI method with a total number of 15,102 users completing the web interview. Among these citizens, 5664 were over 55 years old. This exploratory study allows to investigate factors facilitating or hampering the acceptance of an EHR by citizens and also to compare the results obtained for the overall sample and for the group of adults over 55. At the same time, it provides useful input to define specific public policies to promote acceptance of innovative e-health solutions by older adults. Field study 3. This qualitative study is focused on elderly acceptance of Digital Terrestrial Television (DTT) in Italy after the analogue switch-off. In order to identify the main predictors of frequency of use by elderly people, the UTAUT model was applied, with a focus group discussion analysis. The results suggest that the behavior of the elderly group is not homogeneous. In some people fear towards DTT and new ICT technologies prevails against curiosity or vice versa, to the extent that we can identify two main different sub-groups based on the following cultural characteristics: a) Inadequate elderly: the main feature of people belonging to this group is the sense of inadequacy, incompetence, clumsiness with new technologies. b) Curious elderly: elderly in this subclass are unskilled in new technologies as the “inadequate elderly”, but they are not really hampered by fear and by sense of inadequacy; their personal interests and passions allow them to overcome the psychological and physical barriers due to age. The results suggest that those elderly individuals extensively exploring new DTT channels are the same utilizing their explorative abilities over the Internet and in the use of ICT services.

Title: How Healthy Policy could Help People With Dementia in Bureaucratic System: Preliminary Analysis from “Carlo Poma-Dementia Care Pathway”
Authors: V. Frisardi, S Faroni, A,Ventura, G. Gazzoni, G. Simoncelli, A.Bellani, F. Biagi, E. Galante,A. Balzanelli, E Talassi, L. Frittoli, G. Capiluppi, E. Campagnari, C. D’angelis; A. Taragnani, D. Terzi; C Matarazzo, M Avesani, D Roccatagliata, C. Basili, M.Galavotti, A. Ciccone; and the whole staff of “Dementia Care Pathway” of ASST “Carlo-Poma

Title: Forget-Me-Not! A Case for Healthcare Workers to Confront Their Attitudes, Understandings and Practices Surrounding Ageing and Disability
Author: Terence Seedsman
Affiliation: Victoria University / Melbourne- Australia

Title: An examination of how the household model' contributes to positive ageing for residents
Authors: Anya Ahmed, Maaike Seekles & Paula Ormandy
Affiliation: University of Salford
Promoting a good quality of life for the oldest members of society has become a top priority as evidenced in UK policy and legislation. The ‘household’ model is a departure from traditional approaches to care provision since it offers person-centred support, health and social care to older people in specially-designed, small, homelike environments. Having gained increasing popularity in care homes across developed countries, the impact of this model of service delivery on residents’ quality of life its contribution to positive ageing is of increasing interest.
Belong is a not-for-profit, UK care organisation currently operating several villages under a household model. The scope of services Belong offer covers a wide spectrum. The villages comprise independent living apartments (bought or rented) and residential/nursing care households offering 24 hour personalised, on-site care for residents with some degree of personal, dementia or nursing care needs. In each village there is a range of facilities open to the public (including a Bistro, hairdressers and gym facilities). Belong also offers a domiciliary community service.
In this paper we present data generated from qualitative interviews with a sample of Belong residents and relatives across two villages. Drawing on positive ageing theories influenced by classical activity theory, we explore how the household model as operated at Belong facilitates the maintenance of independence and agency among residents and how this contributes to positive ageing.

Title: Effect of six-month supplementation with cholecalciferol on glycemic and blood pressure control in type 2 diabetic patients with hypovitaminosis D
Author: Marco Barale, Ruth Rossetto Giaccherino, Ezio Ghigo, Massimo Procopio

Title: Diversity in active ageing: A new classification’s proposal
Author: Feliciano Villar
Abstract: The concept of active ageing has been proposed as a way to describe and promote lifestyles which contribute to ageing well. However, these lifestyles are diverse, and there are many activities that may be included within the concept of active ageing.
The aime of the article is to propose a way to classify the range of activities that could contribute to age actively. Two axes were proposed: (1) amount of resources needed to carry out those activities and (2) orientation (individual or collective) of the activity.
Three main activities were analyzed to illustrate that classification: participation in leisure activities, participation in high-demanding sport activities and participation in political organizations.
Discussion revolves around the comparison within these three activities in terms of motives and outcoumes, challenges for future research using this new classification, and highlights practical implications to take into account diversity while promoting active ways of ageing.

Title: A Pragmatic Approach to Active Ageing; The Case of Older Migrants in Portugal
Author: Ruxandra Oana Ciobanu
Affiliation: Centre for the Interdisciplinary Study of Gerontology and Vulnerability and Swiss National Centre of Competences in Research LIVES, University of Geneva
Key words: Older migrants, Active ageing, Portugal, Care provisions, Informal work
The article problematizes the concept of active ageing by discussing it in relation to the diversity in the older migrant population. In doing so, it answers two questions: 1) what are the activities older migrants engage in? and 2) how can the concept of active ageing contribute to the analysis? The article draws on fieldwork research in Portugal in the area of greater Lisbon and the Algarve, the regions with the highest concentration of migrants. There were conducted twenty interviews of which half with leaders of associations and half with older migrants. Additionally, there were done two focus groups with Cape Verdeans and three workshops with various stakeholders included in the analysis as expert discussions. The article brings to the foreground a more pragmatic side of active ageing, reframing it as a way of coping with small incomes, lack of social insurances and loneliness.

Title: A consideration on the current treatment methods for dementia
Author: Miyako Tazaki
Affiliation: Department of psychology, Faculty of Medicine, Toho University, Tokyo, Japan
Background: The number of people with dementia has been steadily increasing in developed countries. Particularly in Japan, 55 % of more than 85 years old are diagnosed as dementia. Although various experiments and researches have been conducted, no definitive treatment has been established to date. Current research indicates metabolic dysfunction may play an important role of occurrence of the disease.
Methods: The author first conducted database search with key words of dementia, Alzheimer’s disease, and prevention of dementia so on in the databases of Cochran, PubMed, and J-Stage, then selected methods which proof of effectiveness.
Results: The author summarises the recommended methods in six fields as follows;
1) Diet: the Mind-Dash diet and omega-3 intake, 2) Exercise: walking and “cogni-cises”, an exercise developed in Japan, 3) Appropriate communication, 4) Drugs controlling of Aβ of the brain, 5) Neurofeedback and 6) Control of insulin resistance, whose extensive clinical researches are currently underway.
Conclusions: To keep healthy life style with good communication are the key for the prevention of the disease. The research results of control of insulin resistance and neurofeedback are anticipated as potential tools for drastic improvement of the disease.
Keywords: dementia, Alzheimer’s disease, prevention and treatment methods of dementia

Title: Wrinkles and smiles — What is good ageing? A technology assessment perspective
Authors: Niklas Gudowsky, Ulrike Bechtold, Leo Capari, Mahshid Sotoudeh
Affiliation: Institute of Technology Assessment, Austrian Academy of Sciences
Abstract: In the light of recent changes in the discourse on positive ageing approaches, it seems worthwhile to take a closer look at the way “quality ageing” is understood, expressed and dealt with in technology assessment (TA). To do so, we employ bottom up qualitative text analysis to identify positive ageing concepts. The investigated data derives from final reports of a sample of national and international (predominantly participatory) TA projects we conducted over the course of the past ten years. These projects show a high variability with regard to contexts, methods, topics and funding schemes, however display a common core of investigating desirable frameworks and futures for an ageing society from a citizen, stakeholder and expert perspective and identified possible pitfalls for assistive technologies for older adults. In terms of constructing a TA perspective, we search for overarching patterns across the different reports, thus integrating multiple actor groups’ views combined with scientific analysis. Results show that…

Title: Health related quality of life among elderly - an evolutionary perspective
Author: Sylvia Kirchengast

Title: Aging Positively A Two Way Street: Healthy Life Style and Attitude of Others
Author: Paul M. Valliant

Title: Using Mixed Methods to Explain Older Residents' Physical Activity and Community Active Aging Friendliness
Author: Deborah H. John
Abstract: The sequential mixed-methods study examined the interplay between self-reported walking and exercise behaviors of a county population subsample of independent, older adult (n=126; age 65 years and older), and physical activity attributes of rural (n=3) and non-rural communities (n=3) that were experienced as active aging supports or barriers by adult residents (n=237; ages 50 and older). Logistic regressions models were computed to predict survey respondents' reports of walking and exercise by community type. Older adults living in non-rural (vs. rural) communities reporting good health and higher income had significantly higher odds of walking around their neighborhood (p<0.001). Older women (vs. men) reporting good health and higher income had 2.8 greater odds (p<0.05) of exercising regardless of community type. Qualitative data, mapped photographs of observable features and focus group transcripts, generated by local residents engaged in participatory research were coded, analyzed using constant comparison triangulation across data sources. Rural, compared to non-rural, communities were experienced as having fewer available, accessible, and affordable supports, and more barriers for walking and exercising. Calls to action promoting active aging as a prevention strategy must consider equitable availability and accessibility of physical activity supports, and need to improve the active living context to support active aging for physical activity disparate populations.

Title: Wisdom and Curiosity Among Older Learners: Elucidating Vibrancy, Purpose, and Community from Beautiful Questions in Older Adulthood
Authors: Craig A Talmage 1, PhD; Richard C Knopf 2
Affiliations: 1. Hobart & William Smith Colleges, Geneva, NY USA; 2. Arizona State University, Phoenix, AZ USA

Title: Looking forward into functional aging
Authors: Maricarmen Cruz-Jimenez MD, David Soto-Quijano MD, Daniel Colon-Conde MD, Enoc Martinez-Morales

Title: Aging and the Art of Happiness: Time effects of a positive psychology program with older adults
Authors: Orsega-Smith, Elizabeth, Goodwin, Steve, Greenawalt, Katie, Turner, Jennie, & Rathie, Erica
Objectives: Research has shown that positive psychology interventions can enhance subjective wellbeing and reduce depression, however, the efficacy of these programs with older adult populations has not been widely examined. The present study studied the short and long term impact of an intervention enhancing happiness and overall mental wellbeing in older adults.
Method: The Art of Happiness is an 8-week intervention conducted at 2 senior centers in the state of Delaware. Each 90 minute class examined a different topic; (1) defining happiness, (2) stress management, (3) reflecting on happiness, (4) compassion and human connection, (5) forgiveness, (6) transforming suffering, (7) mindfulness, and (8) humor. Pre, post, and 6 months post program questionnaires assessed participant subjective happiness, stress, life satisfaction, depression, mindfulness, arousal states, and general demographic and health information.
Results: 32 participants completed the course and were mostly married (43.8%), female (87.5%) and Caucasian (90.6%), with an age range of 53-84 years (70.91 + .70 years). There was a significant time effect controlling for age, gender, and health issues for happiness, mood state of tiredness, and mindfulness constructs of non-judging and non-reactivity, stress, and SWL (p<.05).
Conclusion: These results suggest that changes in positive mental health have the potential to be maintained in older adults after a positive psychology program ends. It may be that individuals have learned techniques and incorporated them into their lifestyle. Programs emphasizing these aspects of well-being may have potential to buffer the older adult population against poor mental health by improving subjective happiness and mental well-being.

Title: Towards positive aging: links between social relations, forgiveness and health
Authors: Noah J. Webster, Kristine J. Ajrouch, Toni C. Antonucci

Title: Non farmacological interventions proposed in our day care center for the AGED 'Centro diurno per Anziani del Veneto', to promote an active and successful aging process
Authors: Busato Valentina, Dridani Loredana, Iwuala Chibuzo, Mason Paola, Miroglio Cinzia, Pavanetto Paola, Rubert Alessandra

Title: Nutritional status is associated with disability in community-dwelling older adults
Author: Lixia Ge
Affiliation: Health Services and Outcomes Research, National Healthcare Group, Singapore, 3 Fusionopolis Link, #03-08 [email protected] (South Lobby), Singapore 138543
Aim: To investigate the association between poor nutrition and three aspects of disability (activity participation, activity limitation and physical impairments) among community-dwelling older adults in Singapore.
Methods: A secondary analysis of baseline data of the Population Health Index survey which included 712 randomly selected community-living older adults aged 60 years and above. Nutritional status was evaluated by the Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA®). The Disability Component of the Late-Life Function and Disability Instrument (LLFDI), activities of daily living (ADLs) and instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs) were used to assess different aspects of disability. Descriptive and multiple linear regression analyses were applied.
Results: According to the MNA, 13.9% of older adults were malnourished or at risk of malnutrition. Older adults with poor nutritional status had less frequent activity participation (B=-6.2, p<0.01), more activity limitation (B=-12.6, p<0.01), and more physical function impairments (ADL score: B=-11.6, p<0.01; IADL score: B=-1.5, p<0.01).
Conclusion: Nutritional status has great association with all three aspects of disability in community-dwelling older adults. Implementing nutritional intervention programs in community could be an effective strategy to facilitate healthier eating, promote activity participation and reduce activity limitation in older people.


Original Research

Missing Voices and Aging in Prison: Religiosity’s Influence on Positive Aging through Forgiveness

G. Kevin Randall, Alex J. Bishop
Received: August 24, 2018; Published: November 7, 2018;  doi:10.21926/obm.geriatr.1804018


Association between Oral Frailty and Geriatric Conditions

Koji Naruishi
Received: September 06, 2018; Published: October 26, 2018; doi:10.21926/obm.geriatr.1804016

Research Article

Dementia: Aloneness, Social and Relational Engagement, and Psychological Growth in Families

Bruce Walmsley, Lynne McCormack
Received: June 23, 2018; Published: October 08, 2018; doi:10.21926/obm.geriatr.1804013


Online Dating Profiles and Problems in Older Adults: A Review

Tiffany Field
Received: April 28, 2018; Published: September 25, 2018; doi:10.21926/obm.geriatr.1803012

Short Report

Positive Life Experiences Following a Dementia Diagnosis

Shoshana H. Bardach, Christina Moore, Sarah D. Holmes, Richard R. Murphy, Allison Gibson, Gregory A. Jicha
Received: June 15, 2018; Published: July 27, 2018; doi:10.21926/obm.geriatr.1803006