Table of Contents

Volume 4,Issue 4

Open Access Original Research

Multi-Species Probiotic Modulates Cytokine Production and the Interplay between Immune and Colon Cancer Cells

Received: 28 June 2020;  Published: 19 November 2020;  doi: 10.21926/obm.hg.2004053


The current study aimed to investigate the effect of a multi-species probiotic (MSP) on cytokine production by human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and their immune dialogue with HT-29 colon cancer cells. PBMCs were incubated with MSP and their effect on cell proliferation and TNFα, IL-1β, IL-2, IL-6, IFNγ, IL-10, and IL-1ra production was evaluated. The impact of MSP on the cytokine production by PBMC stimulated by HT-29 cells was detected. Not-stimulated PBMC incubated with MSP sho [...]

Open Access Review

The Physiology of Esophageal Reflexes

Received: 17 August 2020;  Published: 02 November 2020;  doi: 10.21926/obm.hg.2004052


Several digestive tract reflexes involving the esophagus and its sphincter muscles have been identified, but to date, no comprehensive review has addressed most of these reflexes. The current review presents the known physiology of different esophageal reflexes in which either the esophagus or its sensory or motor portion of the reflex response is elaborated. The current review comprehensively examines the known and possible mechanisms underlying major esophageal reflexes, highlights the huge ga [...]